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Why Do Specific Supermassive Black Holes Glow So Brightly? Scientists Find The Reason

For the first time ever, astronomers have seen the startling process by which some supermassive black holes release jets of high-energy particles into space and showed that why do specific supermassive black holes glow so brightly.

Kenzo Norman
Nov 28, 20221217 Shares43460 Views
For the first time ever, astronomers have seen the startling process by which some supermassive black holes release jets of high-energy particles into space and showed that why do specific supermassive black holes glow so brightly.
According to a study published in Nature on November 23rd, shock waves traveling along the jet of a blazar distort magnetic fields, speeding up fleeing particles to almost the speed of light. Examining acceleration on this scale may provide light on some of the most basic topics in physics.
Blazar galaxies are among the most luminous examples of these whirling, very hot material galaxies. They radiate heat like a blazing coat, and they focus matter into beams that race through space, emitting electromagnetic radiation at incomprehensible velocities.
Shocks in the black hole's jets boost the speed of particles to mind-blowing velocities, which scientists have determined to be the mechanism producing the incredible high-energy light that reaches us from billions of years ago.
This is a 40-year-old mystery that we've solved. We finally had all of the pieces of the puzzle, and the picture they made was clear.- Yannis Liodakis, Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA)

Black Holes Shoot Jets Of High-energy Particles Toward Earth

For observers located millions or even billions of light-years distant, blazars appear as brilliant spots due to the active black holes they conceal. In general, astronomers suspected that the geometry of magnetic fields around black holes was responsible for the jets' extraordinary velocities and tight columnar beams, but the specifics remained unclear.
In comes the IXPE, an orbiting observatory for x-ray polarimetry, set for launch in December 2021. Its goal is to track the polarization of X-rays as they move across space. Polarized X-rays may see into a blazar's active core whereas polarized radio waves and optical light investigated portions of jets days to years after they had been accelerated.
With X-rays, you're actually looking at the core of the particle acceleration. You're gazing right at the heart of the action.- Yannis Liodakis, Finland's University of Turku
In order to speed up Markarian 501's jet, Liodakis and his colleagues came up with two basic hypotheses involving magnetic fields. Magnetic reconnection, which occurs when magnetic field lines split, regenerate, and rejoin to other neighboring lines, may provide a boost to particles.
The same mechanism speeds up solar plasma. If it were the engine for accelerating particles, then light of every wavelength, from radio to X-ray, would be polarized in the same way as it traveled along the jet.
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Shock Wave Shooting Particles Down The Jet

Particles might also be sent down the jet by a shock wave. Magnetic fields are transformed from chaotic to organized at the shock's epicenter. When flipped, particles may be released at high speeds, much like water exiting a hose nozzle. When particles move away from the shock source, turbulence is expected to resume.
If the acceleration was caused by a shock, then other telescopes should detect more polarization in the shorter wavelength X-rays than in the longer wavelength optical and radio radiation.
According to Liodakis, that's precisely what the studies found. A "clear finding," he claims, supporting the shock wave theory, was obtained.
According to physicist James Webb of Florida International University in Miami, there is more work to be done in order to find out the specifics of the particle movement. One problem is that we have no idea what would cause the shock to occur. Yet, "this is a start in the right direction," he argues. Opening a new perspective on the item allows us to see details we missed previously. It's a thrilling prospect.

Final Words

Black holes, which do not produce any visible light, sure do like to hide behind a veil of light. Light from supermassive black holes is among the most luminous in the Universe. Actually, it's not black holes that are the problem, but rather the matter in their vicinity, which they actively consume in huge quantities.
Although the precise method by which the shocks are generated remains unclear, it may include faster material in the jet catching up to slower-moving clumps, leading to collisions. This theory may be verified by further studies.
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