Node methylation is essential for the epigenetic regulation of gene expression in cells. When researchers first began looking into how these processes are controlled, they discovered that the enzyme controlling this process is called sirtuin protein lysine deacylase, more popularly known as NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase.
SIRT1 activity is closely tied to the genetic clock that determines the rate of ageing. This posed a question that eventually led to ways NMN supplementsboost NAD+ production.
Profound work done by various researchers at Harvard Medical School's Department of Genetics has found that NAD+ boosters slow down age-related problems such as neurodegenerative diseases. It also helps treat diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, and atherosclerosis.
With age, NAD+ levels can start falling in some people. When you grow old, the DNA damage can accumulate and begin using enzymes that rely on NAD+ for DNA cell repair. The enzymes like PARP break down NAD, causing its shortage in your body. You may start experiencing several illnesses resulting in DNA damage.
Some enzymes present in the immune system also start depleting NAD+ levels. The key sources of deficiencies can be sirtuin consumption of NAD+, PARP usage, biosynthesis cellular process, and other enzymes consuming NAD+. In all these cases, you may become prone to obesity and aging. NMN supplementation can control such effects by improving metabolism, slowing down aging, and increasing NAD+ levels in your body.
One of the most common questions about NAD+ precursors or anti-aging supplements is how they work to boost NAD+. The answer isn't exactly clear, but it appears that it may involve NMN mimicking some of the effects of a calorie-restricted diet.
In mice, calorie restriction increased NAD+ levelsin the liver and activated SIRT1, which improved metabolic function. It's not yet clear if getting extra NMN provides similar benefits as restricting calories. Still, there are several reasons why using an NMN supplement might be more effective than simply restricting your calories.
The reason is that a lot of your energy comes from glucose which turns into ATP. ATP uses a pyruvate molecule as its energy source. NMN is known to increase NAD+ available for oxidative phosphorylation (a process where ATP is produced in cells by harvesting energy from nutrients).
This means that with an extra supply of NAD+, it's possible that:
- Your body may shift away from using glycolysis (where sugar is converted into pyruvate) as its main form of energy.
- The effects on metabolic function might end up being more pronounced than those seen in calorie-restricted mice since you're getting a lot more NMN than what would be naturally obtained via diet alone.
Whether NMN supplements stop aging is still unanswered, but there are some promising results in mice. Some people like to cite this 2012 study which found that mice treated with NMN didn't show signs of aging even after two years, while the control group did age.
There isn't a clear consensus on what dose provides optimal results. Some people like to say that even small doses can benefit some, while others argue that you need high doses to really see anything worthwhile.
In general, it seems that people have been pretty safe from supplements containing NMN as long as they're taking a dosage within the recommended range. Even those taking larger doses seem to be doing fine with no serious negative symptoms.
One of the most notable reported side effects was a headache that happened in some people after taking supplements. This happens because NAD+ requires thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) to function, which is a vitamin B1 co-factor. So if you're low on TPP, your body can't use NAD+ properly even if there's enough NAD+ floating around in your system. Some people have found that taking a thiamine supplement before the NMN supplements helps avoid this headache.
- Anti-Aging Effects - SIRT1 is one of the seven sirtuins that belong to a class of proteins known as deacetylases. It is closely linked to aging. Studies have shown it can slow down epigenetic changes, leading to age-related problems such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases (such as Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and Parkinson's).
- NMN-based supplements boost NAD+ production by suppressing SIRT1 enzyme activity. This provides more NAD+ for the production of new mitochondria.
- NMN boosts SIRT1 activity naturally and can even mimic its effects. It happens by increasing the number of available precursor molecules that are involved in sirtuin-mediated gene silencing, chromatin remodelling, and DNA repair mechanisms.
- The supplements can also be used as an anti-cancer treatment since it inhibits histone deacetylase which is linked to inflammatory responses related to cancer development.
- Other benefits associated with NAD+ boosters include better cognitive function, protection against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, degeneration of neurons or nerve cells in the brain affecting our memory or other brain functions, stroke damage due to a lack of oxygen to the brain, and many more.
- NMN-based supplements also offer cardiovascular benefits, including reducing atherosclerosis, which is also the leading cause of heart disease. The supplements can also boost muscle function by maintaining a steady energy output and healthy mitochondria.
- More telomerase activity means that cells can divide without limit leading to healthier organs with greater longevity.
- Inhibiting plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels can help treat hypertension since it helps break down fibrin deposits in blood vessels, leading to clots.
- Phosphodiesterases are enzymes involved in cellular aging, and this includes PDEs 5 and nine inhibitions.
- NMN supplements boost NAD+ production by upregulating nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase.
Many people are looking for anti-aging supplements to offset the negative effects of aging, and NMN is one such candidate. The science behind NAD+ boosters is still young, but some studies have shown some impressive benefits so far. You can start the supplementation after consulting your physician and choose a reliable brand to receive optimum benefits.