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Types of financial statements

Types of financial statements

May 04, 2021 | Jaya Mckeown
finance

Table of Contents

Balance Sheet Income statement Statement of Changes in Equity Statement of Cash Flows Why the need to be aware of these financial statements? Final Thoughts 

Financial statements are written documents that describe a company's operations and financial performance. Government departments, accountants, companies, and others often inspect financial statements to ensure consistency and for accounting, funding, and investment purposes.

Financial data is used by investors and financial analysts to evaluate a company's success and make assumptions about the stock price's potential course. The annual report, which includes the firm's financial statements, is one of the most valuable sources of accurate and audited financial results.

Investors and the management use different types of financial statements depending on their needs. A company’s financial statements are split into four--the balance sheet, the income statement, the statement of changes in equity, and the statement of cash flows. These four serve different functions. They also show different figures that investors and the management can use. 

Here are more details about the type of financial statements a company has. 

Balance Sheet 

This report depicts a company's financial situation as of the report date. It covers a specific point in time. Assets, liabilities, and equity are the general classifications used to group the data. The asset and liability classification line items are presented in order of liquidity, with the most liquid items appearing first. This is an essential document that is included in most financial statement issuances.

A balance sheet has three important elements: assets, liabilities, and equity. 

Assets are anything that a company owns or manages, such as cash, inventory, plant and machinery, and so on. 

Liabilities are debts or obligations that the company owes to someone who is a creditor, a bank, or other financial institutions. 

Equity, now, is what the company owes its founders. This is the amount of money that remains in the company after all of its assets have been used to pay off its debts. As a result, equity is the difference between assets and liabilities.

Income statement 

This report details an organization's financial success over the course of a reporting period. To arrive at a net profit or loss, it starts with sales and then subtracts all expenses incurred during the time. If the financial statements are being released by a publicly-held firm, earnings per share statistics can also be included. Since it outlines results, this is generally regarded as the most critical financial statement.

The income statement has two crucial parts: the revenue/sales and the expenses. The revenue portion of this statement covers the sales whether cash or credit, the purchases, inventories, discounts, shipping fees, and anything that relates to the cost of what the company is selling. Expenses, on the other hand, include the salaries expense, rent, utility expense, and anything that the business spends to make the company operate. 

Statement of Changes in Equity 

Over the monitoring period, this report tracks all adjustments in equity. The issuing or purchase of bonds, dividends paid, and gains or losses are all examples of these improvements. Since the information in this document is not particularly relevant to the management team, it is not normally used when financial statements are released internally.

What this statement contains are the following: the net profit or loss for the year based on the reports in the income statement, share capital issued or repaid throughout the period, payments of dividends, directly acknowledged gains or losses in equity, such as revaluation surpluses, and a change in accounting policy or the correction of an accounting mistake may have a variety of consequences.

Statement of Cash Flows 

The cash inflows and outflows experienced by a company during the reporting period are detailed in this study. Operating operations, spending activities, and funding activities are the three classifications for these cash flows. Since this paper is difficult to put together, it is usually only given to third parties.

This statement has three main parts--the operating activities, which represents the cash flow generated by a company's primary activities, the investing activities, which are the cash flows from the acquisition and selling of properties other than inventories, and financing activities that contain the cash flow provided or expended on raising and repaying share capital and debt, as well as interest and dividend payments. 

Why the need to be aware of these financial statements? 

Financial Statements are important because they accurately represent a company's economic results and financial position. Furthermore, it assists all stakeholders, including management, investors, financial analysts, and others, in evaluating and making appropriate economic decisions by comparing past and current performance and, as a result, forecasting future performance and development of the firm.

To the shareholders, they may use these statements to learn about the company's results. It also permits them to assess current and future results. 

To the creditors, the basic indicators in the financial statements are used to assess factors such as liquidity, debt, and profitability. The debt status of the company is of primary concern to creditors and lenders. If a company's debt level is higher than that of other firms in the same sector, it is over-leveraged.

To the employees, some businesses issue a separate financial statement for them. Employees need business data for two primary reasons: their current pay and projected compensation evaluations. They'll want to hear about the present situation as well as expected profits in the future. 

To the government, another important aspect of financial statements is that they are used for taxation purposes. The government assesses the economy's efficiency based on the economic performance of these companies in different sectors.

To the company, financial statements are used for different analyses such as debt management, trend analysis, liability management, tracking, and compliance. 

Final Thoughts 

Whoever you are--the investor, creditor, management, government, or employee--you need financial statements to see the company in a bigger picture. If you are aware of these reports, it would be easier for you to look for the data you want to know. All money matters are basically reflected in these financial statements. The more you are aware of them, the more you can strategize your moves for the company.

Jaya Mckeown | Jaya moved to Boston from New York to pursue a master's degree in corporate communications at Emerson College. This experience, combined with her undergraduate degree in psychology and teaching, has equipped her with valuable skills that she employs on a daily basis in real estate negotiations, homebuyer and seller education, and successful promotion of the team's listings. Jaya's clients often characterize her as meticulous, proactive, and enjoyable to be around.

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