This work was carried out within the scope of History A, in compensation for the missing material. We write about the end of the greatest empire ever, the Roman, an ironic and tragic end for the people announcing tragedies. And also the coming of the Suevi, a Nordic people who occupied northern Spain and Portugal during the barbarian invasions of the 3rd century AD. Ç.
We hope that with this work we will be able to demonstrate that we are able to learn outside of classes and that we have an improvement in our final grade.
The Roman Empire, the largest and longest, only managed to be because of the little things that made them all equal, all Roman. One of those things, perhaps important, was the religious cohesion that was felt through the cult of the emperor, started with Octávio Augusto (1st century BC), it was in fact this religious cohesion that kept the empire together, in such a way that it began to fall apart with the appearance of a new religion, Christianity. A religion of the poor who refused to recognize the Emperor as God, because he had his own God and his earthly representative, Christ.
Since the barbarians began to enter the Roman territory they have posed a problem for the emperors in power to resolve. And they did so for a while, reorganizing the way they defended the main cities. They created forts and walls around cities and trusted local soldiers to defend them. This strategy started with Diocletian who, despite repelling them, also allowed the entry of some in order to romanize them and at the same time to use them to better protect themselves, including those in their armies, since they were excellent mercenaries, and at the same time it made up for the Romans' growing flight from military service. A happy idea that greatly delayed the barbarian invasions, taking into account that these new 'Romans' fell in love with the Roman civilization and were the most committed to keeping it away from the invading peoples, in such a way that during the domination of Constantine Germans and Franks reached dukes and tribunes and with Theodosius is the instead of the Cobbles. Years later they were even present in the imperial retinue, at the Consulate, and even in the imperial family, of which Germans were apart. This was because the barbarian elites adored Rome and the Roman elite had nothing against it, but the same was not true of the barbarian commoners.
The inclusion that the Emperor allowed the barbarians did not end here, having installed entire barbarian settlements within the imperial territory of the West allowing an economic increase. During the 4th and 5th centuries, this measure was maintained with agreements with the federates, keeping the barbarian crisis under control, or at least allowed the two peoples to get to know each other better and create the Roman-barbarian civilization, which is at the origin of Europe.
In the 5th century, history changed when the invasions dictated the end of the greatest empire that ever existed. The Huns and the Germans violently invade Italy, destroying everything in their path, but the empire survived in 410 AD. C. Rome was plundered by the Visigoths led by Alarico I, this invasion was the first and 800 years has caused the capital of the Empire to be moved to Ravenna by Emperor Honorius, it was also the beginning of the fall of the Western Roman Empire. Later, in 452 the Huns, led by Attila, invaded the Italian Peninsula but were defeated and Rome saved from destruction. At the same time, several barbarian peoples were making Roman Europe their new home. The Visigoths in Hispania, the Franks in Northern Gaul, and the Vandals in North Africa, by this time the Romans lost almost all control of their territory, a situation that worsens until the 4th of September 476 the Roman Empire of the West comes to an end, with the removal of Rómulo Augústulo, the last western emperor on the part of the chief of Hérulos. From that day on, the reign of several barbarian peoples began in the former space Roman, having many different peoples who fought for their place, the reign of these peoples reached its peak in the century. VI, having been threatened only once, half a century after the fall of Rome, when the Emperor of the East, Justinian regained Rome, however, it lasted only a short time and was again taken by the Ostrogoths who maintained it until the end.
Despite the fall of Rome, the Roman Empire did not fall, it remained in the East, with Constantinople as its capital until 1453, when the Turks invaded and changed its name to Istanbul, until then it was the seat of all Christian culture and religion. oriental in the Middle Ages.
The Suevi were one of the barbarian peoples that invaded the Roman Empire and settled in the Iberian Peninsula. They established their domain from 409 to 585 d. Ç.
Origin: Region between the Elbe and Oder rivers, in present-day Germany.
Relationship with Rome: The Suevi have been known to the Romans since the 19th century. I BC of the Gallic War, since then they coexist in the military and commercial relationship
Ethnicity: Speculate that they have Nordic and Hungarian origins
Language: At first they spoke Suevo, but they quickly adapted to the Hispanic- Latin language spoken in the occupied area.
Reign: They occupied the present North of Portugal and Galicia, from 409 to 585 d. C., when they were attacked by the Visigoths
Inheritance: There are few traces left because they adopted the local language very quickly, it is known that they left the northern way of life and the use of the square plow.
They arrived in the Iberian Peninsula in 409, together with other Germanic invaders, Vandals and Alanos, flock to the south of the Pyrenees and found a kingdom, with the capital in Bracara Augusta (Braga), which, to its maximum extent, encompassed the province of Galicia and the northern part of Lusitânia, up to the Tagus river. At first, they settled only in Lusitania, only when the Asdingos left Galicia increased their territory.
They now controlled the entire Hispanic Northwest. The Suevos settled mainly around cities like Bracara Augusta (Braga), Portus Cale (Porto), Lucus Augusta (Lugo), and Asturica (Astorga). A city where they left an enormous cultural legacy, in such a way, that even today Braga is one of the most important cities of Christian faith in the Iberian Peninsula, it is due to the fact that the Suevi people chose it as capital and episcopal seat.
The stay of the Suebi in the Northwest of the Peninsula was not peaceful, they were in constant war with the neighboring peoples. In 438 the Suevian king Hermenerico negotiated peace with the Galician peoples and, tired of a life of struggles, he who already commanded the Suevi when they entered the Iberian Peninsula, abdicated in favor of his son Réquila I. In 448, King Réquila I dies, leaving his son, an expanding kingdom, Requiário, already a Christian, will impose this creed on the Sueva population. The urban population of Galicia was already predominantly Christian, having accepted it easily.
Porto was a very important city in Swedish history. By around 417, the Alans invaded the territory of the Swabians, pushing them to the right bank of the Douro river, where now stands the city of Oporto. The Alanos did not manage, despite many efforts, to conquer the city, being later expelled by the suevo people, with the support of the Romans. Hermeneuric I, the Suevian king, extended the walls of the castle, which he founded on the wall of Pena Ventosa (where there is currently the Cathedral), building houses around it for his troops. This city was given the name of Cale Castrum Novum (new castle of Cale) acquiring the denomination of civitas. At the bottom of that blow was the Portus Cale (Port of Cale, present-day Ribeira do Porto), which gave rise to the name Portucale, the name given to the new castle, and which was to designate the city of Porto from the end of the 4th century.
In 456 the Suevi king, Requiário I, and suitors to the throne appear from the Quados and Marcomanos, who was part of the peninsula's supremacy, this causes great instability in these lands. Later in 585 the Visigoths invaded the Suevian territory, defeated and captured their king Andeca. With this, the Suevo kingdom was annexed to the Visigodo Kingdom of Toledo, but maintaining some autonomy. From what is known of the chronicles of Afonso III (king of Leão), King Vizita reigned over the Visigoths and also reigned over the Suevi.
Although the Suevos did not stay long in the Iberian Peninsula, they left a huge cultural, agricultural and religious heritage in the Hispanic Northwest and it is to this people that it is partly due to the fact that Portuguese and Galicians are so similar in cultural aspects.
Germans - the Germans or Germanic peoples are a group of speaking peoples of Indo-European languages, originating in northern Europe (northern Europe) and identified by the common use of language German.
Franks - The Franks formed one of the Germanic tribes that entered the space of the Roman empire from Friesland (from the Netherlands to Denmark) as federates and established a lasting kingdom in the area that covers most of France today and in the Franconian region. (a region in Bavaria) in Germany, forming the historical base of both modern countries.
Tribunos - magistrate who intervened for the Roman plebs in the Senate.
Federated - Barbarian populations that settled, under the order of the emperor, in Roman territory and maintained relations with the Romans.
Barbarians - Non-Roman peoples who had their own culture and customs, so they were not the same as the Romans. They were so-called because they were not Romans.
Visigoth Kingdom of Toledo- Although it covers half of France and the entire Iberian Peninsula, it is called the Kingdom of Toledo because it was there its origin.
Visigoths - Visigoths were one of two branches in which the Goths were divided, a Germanic people originally from Eastern Europe, the other being the Ostrogoths.
Godos - People from the Visigoths who inhabited the Iberian Peninsula, hence the word Gothic.
With this work, we managed to consolidate the matter of the Roman Empire, more precisely the end of it and the arrival of the barbaric peoples in the Iberian Peninsula, as well as the cultural legacy left by this people, Suevi, that although different was quite organized and civilized.
Hopefully, the teacher has understood our work and intellectual effort.
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