• News
  • Celebrities
  • Finance
  • Crypto
  • Travel
  • Entertainment
  • Health
  • Others

Study suggests more than socioeconomic factors at work when choosing birth-control methods

A recent study of sexually-active women in California finds that socioeconomic status does not fully explain why certain groups of women in the Golden State use more effective birth-control methods than others, according to a report published in the September 2011 issue of Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, a reproductive-health journal published by the Guttmacher Institute. What also accounts for such disparities, researchers Grace Shih, Eric Vittinghoff, Jody Steinauer and Christine Dehlendorf found, is race and ethnicity.

Using data from the 2006-2008 California Women’s Health Survey, the researchers studied approximately 3,000 women ages 18 to 44 and discovered that African-American and foreign-born Asian women were at a higher risk than white women of becoming pregnant unintentionally because of the types of contraceptive methods they were using. To come to this conclusion, birth-control method choice was compared to the subjects’ racial, ethnic, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics.

The research team identified the following contraceptive methods, ranked in descending order of effectiveness: male sterilization, female sterilization, intrauterine devices (IUDs), implants, injectables, vaginal ring, patch, pill, male condoms, other regular methods (i.e., spermicide, natural family planning), emergency contraception only and none. IUDs and hormonal methods were classified as “high-efficacy” and all other methods as “low-efficacy.”

(The report notes that female and male sterilization methods and the IUD have failure rates of less than 1 percent; birth control methods such as the ring, patch and pill have failure rates of 5-9 percent; and condoms have typical failure rates of 17-18 percent. However, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), condoms can be 98 percent effective if used correctly.)

When controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, the study team found that:

  • Blacks, foreign-born Hispanics and foreign-born Asians had lower odds than whites of using “high-efficacy” reversible methods.
  • Of all the racial groups, white women were the least likely to report using no contraceptive method during sex (19 percent), while black women were the most likely to report using no method (28 percent).
  • Whites were more likely to rely on male sterilization than were other sub-groups, especially foreign-born Asians (16 percent). U.S.-born and foreign-born Asians were less likely to use female sterilization (2 percent and 4 percent, respectively) than were others (8–17 percent).
  • U.S.-born Asians were more likely to use the hormonal birth control pill than any other racial group (28 percent); pill use was least common among blacks and foreign-born Hispanics (16-17 percent).
  • Condoms were used most among U.S.- and foreign-born Asians (25 percent and 36 percent, respectively) and least among whites (16 percent).
  • Overall, 21 percent of women reported not using any contraceptive method. Women were most likely to use the pill (23 percent) or condoms (20 percent), followed by male or female sterilization (10 percent for both) and IUDs (8 percent), followed by injectables (3 percent), the ring (2 percent) and the patch (1 percent).

Ethnic disparities were not found, however, in the use of IUDs, the report found.

The data also revealed that differences in income level also accounted for contraceptive method choice.

  • Women in the highest income category were more likely to rely on male sterilization (15 percent vs. 2–6 percent in lower income groups) or the pill (26 percent vs. 17–18 percent) and less likely to report not using any contraception (19 percent vs. 23–26 percent).
  • High school graduates were more likely than non-high school graduates to report not using any birth control (21 percent vs. 25 percent).
  • IUD and condom use differed little by income or educational level.

National studies, such as a recent Guttmacher Institute report, on unintended pregnancies among American women, have found disparities among socioeconomic group, but the California study suggests that other factors influence what type of woman uses (or does not use) a certain kind of birth control method.

Based on the findings, the researchers identified a need for further research of birth-control use among various minority groups, coupled with intervention programs that target minority groups at high risk for unintended pregnancy.

“Our study underscores the need for improved understanding of contraceptive behavior among minority women,” the researchers write. “Other potential influences on differences in contraceptive use by racial, ethnic and income characteristics include client knowledge of contraceptives and values regarding method choice. … Asian women are of particular interest because of the relative lack of reproductive health information on this population and their relatively low rates of use of high-efficacy methods.”

Discussion & Comments (0)

    Recent Articles

    • Things You Should Know about North America

      Things You Should Know about North America

      Get to know more about North America.

    • Eurovision 2010 Paula Seling Unpredictable Contest

      Eurovision 2010 Paula Seling Unpredictable Contest

      Paula Seling's experience on the Eurovision stage led her to declare that "Eurovision is an unpredictable contest". Which may explain the success of the young Lena from Germany, about whom the predictions before the event did not offer much chances for victory.

    • VIPRow.me - The Best Sports Streaming Website Today

      VIPRow.me - The Best Sports Streaming Website Today

      Have you ever contemplated creating a user-friendly site dedicated to sports-related free live streaming channels?

    • Learn How To Download, Install, And Use The Xnxubd 2022 Frame App

      Learn How To Download, Install, And Use The Xnxubd 2022 Frame App

      XNXUBD 2022 Nvidia users are able to watch thousands of videos and other contents online. XNXUBD 2022 Nvidia New is a piece of software that enables people to watch videos online without having to pay for memberships. On a graphics card, the XNXubd also provides some of the best gaming and virtual reality experiences.

    • Xvideostudio Video Editor Apk Free Download For Pc Full Version In 2022

      Xvideostudio Video Editor Apk Free Download For Pc Full Version In 2022

      A new edition of the Video Editor Apk for xVideostudio.Video Studio has all the latest features, including support for multiple video download formats in HD, FHD, and even 4K resolutions.

    • 9 Best Lotion For Masturbation - Popular Choice For 2022

      9 Best Lotion For Masturbation - Popular Choice For 2022

      Masturbation is a common activity for men and women. It's a natural and risk-free way to explore your body, experience pleasure, and release sexual tension.

    • Reasons Why You Need To Stop Watching Movies From Sflix

      Reasons Why You Need To Stop Watching Movies From Sflix

      Without having to sign up or pay anything, you can watch movies online for free with SFlix. It has more than 10,000 movies and television shows.

    • Coi Leray Mom And Dad's Family History & Wife, Explained

      Coi Leray Mom And Dad's Family History & Wife, Explained

      Coi Leray Collins (born May 11, 1997) is a rapper from the United States. Leray started publishing songs to SoundCloud in 2014, and in 2018 she released her breakthrough track "Huddy" as well as her first mixtape, Everythingcoz.

    • Listen And Download Music On MyFreeMP3 For Free

      Listen And Download Music On MyFreeMP3 For Free

      Are you in a bind and looking for a place to obtain free mp3 songs? Never again will you need to bother, since this article has everything necessary to obtain your solution. Download free music from MyfreeMP3.com, one of the world's most popular websites.